Even though the MD and DO are first professional degrees and not doctorates of research (i. Combined medical and research training is offered through programs granting MD-PhD or DO-PhD degrees. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) through its Medical Scientist Training Program funds MD-PhD training programs at many universities. Some MDs and DOs choose a research career and receive viagra hong kong viagra funding from the NIH as well as other sources such as the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
These degrees may retain, for historical reasons, "Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery" and are abbreviated to MBChB or MBBS. At some universities, this takes the form of a first doctorate, analogous to the Ph. The thesis may consist of new research undertaken on a full- or part-time basis, with much less supervision (in the UK) cialis indonesia cialis than for a Ph. In some commonwealth nations these interns are designated as House Officers.